Covert Action Conference

COVERT ACTION: ADAPTATION, CHALLENGES, AND ADVANCES

February 7, 2013

Copley Formal Lounge
Conference Proceedings

Agenda

9:30am: Welcome
Bruce Hoffman (view bio), Director, Center for Security Studies, Georgetown University
Genevieve Lester (view bio), Center for Security Studies, Georgetown University

9:40am: Keynote
John McLaughlin (view bio), Johns Hopkins University - School of Advanced International Studies

10: 15am: Panel One: Changing Relationships and Constraints
John Rizzo (view bio), Steptoe and Johnson
Catherine Lotrionte (view bio), Georgetown University
Jennifer Kibbe (view bio), Franklin and Marshall College
James Bruce (view bio), RAND Corporation
Moderator: Marty Lederman (view bio), Georgetown University Law Center

12:00pm:  Lunch

12:45pm: Panel Two: Scholarship and Transparency
John Prados (view bio), National Security Archive, George Washington University
Loch Johnson (view bio), University of Georgia
Scott Shane (view bio), The New York Times
David Ignatius (view bio), The Washington Post
Moderator: Genevieve Lester (view bio), Georgetown University

2:30pm: Panel Three: Internal Perspectives
Arturo Munoz (view bio), RAND Corporation
David Robarge (view bio), Central Intelligence Agency
Michael Warner (view bio), US Cyber Command
Moderator: Burton Gerber (view bio), Georgetown University

4:15pm: Panel Four: Covert Action, Process, and Policy
Karen Greenberg (view bio), Center on National Security, Fordham School of Law
Roy Godson (view bio), National Strategy Information Center
George Jameson (view bio), Jameson Consulting
William Daugherty (view bio), Armstrong Atlantic State University
Moderator: Paul Pillar (view bio), Georgetown University

6:00pm: Adjourn: Reception

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Panel Members

Bruce Hoffman, Director, Security Studies Program, Georgetown University
Professor Bruce Hoffman has been studying terrorism and insurgency for more than thirty years. He is currently Director of the Center for Security Studies, Director of the Security Studies Program, and a tenured professor at Georgetown University’s Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Washington,DC. Professor Hoffman previously held the Corporate Chair in Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgencyat the RAND Corporation and was also Director of RAND’s Washington, D.C. Office. From 2001 to 2004,he served as RAND’s Vice President for External Affairs and in 2004 he also was Acting Director of RAND’s Center for Middle East Public Policy.

Professor Hoffman was Scholar-in-Residence for Counterterrorism at the Central Intelligence Agency between 2004 and 2006. He was also adviser on counterterrorism to the Office of National Security Affairs, Coalition Provisional Authority, Baghdad, Iraq during the spring of 2004 and from 2004-2005 was an adviser on counterinsurgency to the Strategy, Plans, and Analysis Office at Multi-National Forces-Iraq Headquarters, Baghdad. Professor Hoffman was also an adviser to the Iraq Study Group. Professor Hoffman is a member of the National Security Preparedness Group, the successor to the 9/11Commission and again co-chaired by Governor Thomas H. Kean and Congressman Lee H. Hamilton.

Professor Hoffman is a Senior Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars,Washington, D.C.; a Senior Fellow at the Combating Terrorism Center, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY; a Visiting Professor at the Institute for Counter-Terrorism, Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya, Israel; and, a Visiting Professor at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. He is also a contributing editor to The National Interest.

Professor Hoffman is a member of the Advisory Committee of the Terrorism and Counterterrorism Program, Human Rights Watch, New York, NY; a member of the Singapore Ministry of Home Affairs Home Team Academy Advisory Panel; a member of the Jamestown Foundation’s Board of Directors; a member of the board of advisers to the FBI Intelligence Analysts Association; and, serves on the advisory boards to the Arms Sales Monitoring Project at the Federation of American Scientists and of Our Voices Together: September 11 Friends and Families to Help Build a Safer, More Compassionate World.

Professor Hoffman was the founding Director of the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St Andrews in Scotland, where he was also Reader in International Relations and Chairman of the Department of International Relations. Professor Hoffman is Editor-in-Chief of Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, the leading scholarly journal in the field. and a member of the advisory boards of Terrorism and Political Violence and the Review of International Studies. He is also editor of the new Columbia University Press Series on Terrorism and Irregular Warfare.

Professor Hoffman holds degrees in government, history, and international relations and received his doctorate from Oxford University. In November 1994, the Director of Central Intelligence awarded Professor Hoffman the United States Intelligence Community Seal Medallion, the highest level of commendation given to a non-government employee, which recognizes sustained superior performance of high value that distinctly benefits the interests and national security of the United States.

Professor Hoffman has conducted field work on terrorism and insurgency in Afghanistan, Argentina,Colombia, India (Kashmir and Assam), Indonesia, Israel, Iraq, Northern Ireland, Pakistan (North West Frontier Province), the Philippines (Mindanao), Palestine (the West Bank and Gaza Strip), Sri Lanka, andTurkey. In 2008 he visited Khowst, Paktia, Kunar, and Nuristan Provinces in Afghanistan to observe the operations of the 82nd Airborne and Provincial Reconstruction Teams under its command, and also traveled to Pakistan, where he toured Pakistani military training facilities and divisional headquarters in the North West Frontier Province.

A revised and updated edition of his acclaimed 1998 book, Inside Terrorism, was published in May 2006by Columbia University Press in the U.S. and S. Fischer Verlag in Germany. Foreign language editions of the first edition have been published in ten countries. The Washington Post described Inside Terrorism as “brilliant” and the “best one volume introduction to the phenomenon” (16 July 2006).

Professor Hoffman was a Fellow and C. V. Starr Distinguished Visitor at the American Academy of Berlin,Germany during the fall, 2006 and a Visiting Fellow at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Canberra,Australia during the summer, 2007.

During his sabbatical leave for the 2009/2010 academic year, Professor Hoffman was a Visiting Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford University for Michaelmas Term (first semester) 2009 and a Public Policy Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC for the second semester. He was the S. Rajaratnam Professor of Strategic Studies at Nanyang Technological University Singapore for the 2009/2010 academic year and was a Distinguished Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC in 2012.

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Genevieve Lester, Security Studies Program, Georgetown University
Genevieve Lester is Visiting Assistant Professor in the Security Studies Program, Coordinator of Intelligence Studies, and Senior Fellow at the Center for Security Studies. She holds a doctorate in political science from the University of California, Berkeley. Her areas of interest are American politics,international relations and security, with an emphasis on intelligence and accountability. In addition to her work with Georgetown, Genevieve is Research Fellow at the University of California center in Washington DC. Genevieve was a research fellow at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS)-U.S., an editor of the British academic journal, International Affairs, based at Chatham House in London,and a Fulbright Scholar at the Technical University, Berlin.

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John McLaughlin, Johns Hopkins University – SAIS
Led review of counterterrorism "lessons learned" at request of director of National Intelligence; served as acting director of the Central Intelligence Agency from July to September 2004 and previously was the agency's deputy director from October 2000; prior to that, was deputy director for Intelligence, vice chairman for Estimates and acting chairman of the National Intelligence Council; founded the Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis, an institution dedicated to teaching the history, mission and essential skills of the analytic profession to new CIA employees; M.A., international relations, SAIS.

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John Rizzo, Steptoe and Johnson
John Rizzo is Senior Counsel in the Washington office of Steptoe & Johnson LLP, where he is a member of the National and Homeland Security practice and the firm’s International Department.

Mr. Rizzo provides legal advice and policy counsel to clients on matters related to national security. His work includes advising companies on the business risks related to their international operations;counseling companies involved in international mergers and acquisitions on the foreign investment review process conducted by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States; and advising clients on the legal and policy-related aspects of working with the Intelligence Community.

Prior to joining Steptoe, Mr. Rizzo spent 34 years in the Office of General Counsel at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) where he provided legal counsel, policy guidance, and leadership on the most difficult and time sensitive national security issues facing the United States. From 2001 until 2002 and from 2004 to 2009, he served as the Chief Legal Officer at CIA and dealt with the most challenging legal issues in the post 9/11 era. During that time, he was responsible for all legal matters at CIA including national security and international law; administrative and contract law; and criminal and civil litigation.Also during his tenure, he served as the Deputy Director for the Office of Congressional Affairs and was the principal interlocutor with the House and Senate Congressional Committees investigating the Iran-Contra Affair. Early in his career, he was the principal drafter of the CIA regulations for the conduct of intelligence activities in the United States – regulations which remain in effect today.

He was the recipient of the Distinguished Career Intelligence Medal, the highest recognition accorded to a career CIA officer. In 1996, he was awarded the Thomas C. Clark Award from the Federal Bar Association as the most outstanding lawyer in government, and to date he is the only Intelligence Community attorney to receive the award.

Mr. Rizzo is a Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution. He is a frequent speaker and has served as a guest lecturer at a number of law schools around the country.

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Catherine Lotrionte, Georgetown University
Professor Catherine Lotrionte is the Director of the Institute for Law, Science and Global Security and Visiting Assistant Professor of Government and Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Professor Lotrionte teaches courses on national security law, U.S. intelligence law, and international law. In addition to teaching, Professor Lotrionte coordinates research projects and events for the Institute for Law, Science and Global Security at Georgetown. She is the Institute Liaison for the Program on Nonproliferation Policy and Law, funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, in cooperation with the Monterey Institute for International Studies’ James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies.Professor Lotrionte is also the Director of the Cyber Project. Professor Lotrionte and the Institute focus on the role of international and domestic law in recent and upcoming developments in cyber technology and cyber threats.

In 2002 she was appointed by General Brent Scowcroft to be Counsel to the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board at the White House, a position she held until 2006. In 2002 she served as a legal counsel for the Joint Inquiry Committee of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Prior to that, Professor Lotrionte was Assistant General Counsel with the Office of General Counsel at theCentral Intelligence Agency, where she provided legal advice relating to information warfare, foreign intelligence and counterintelligence activities, and international terrorism. Before working in the Office of General Counsel at the Central Intelligence Agency, Professor Lotrionte served in the U.S. Department of Justice.

Professor Lotrionte earned her Ph.D. from Georgetown University and her J.D. from New York University and is the author of numerous publications, including a forthcoming book concerning U.S. national security law in the post-Cold War era. She is a frequent speaker at cyber conferences held by academic,military, government, and media organizations. She is a Life Member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

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Jennifer Kibbe, Franklin and Marshall College
Dr. Kibbe earned a Bachelor's degree in Economics from Drake University in 1982, a Master's in Foreign Service from Georgetown University in 1986, and a PhD in Political Science from UCLA in 2002. Before returning to graduate school at UCLA, she worked on South African politics for a number of years at the Investor Responsibility Research Center in Washington, D.C. Immediately prior to coming to Franklin &Marshall, she returned to D.C. for a two-year post-doctoral fellowship at The Brookings Institution.

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James Bruce, RAND
Dr. Bruce is Vice Chairman of the DCI Foreign Denial and Deception Committee in the National Intelligence Council (NIC), Central Intelligence Agency Headquarters, where he is responsible for intelligence community work on foreign denial and deception issues. He has served in various capacities in his 20 years at the CIA including as Deputy National Intelligence Officer for Science and Technology in the NIC; Branch Chief in the Office of European Analysis; Chief of Counterintelligence Training in the DCI Counterintelligence Center; and as senior analyst in both CIA Directorates of Intelligence and Operations. He has also drafted and managed National Intelligence Estimates in the NIC. A Navy veteran and member of the Senior Intelligence Service, Dr. Bruce was formerly Professor of National Security Policy at the National War College, and has taught previously at Kent State and Marshall universities. Dr.Bruce has published a monograph on Soviet policy-making, articles in intelligence publications, and he has testified as a lead witness or principal briefer before several Congressional committees.

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Marty Lederman, Georgetown Law Center
Professor Lederman was Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Department of Justice's Office of Legal Counsel from 2009 to 2010, and an Attorney Advisor in OLC from 1994-2002. From 1988 to 2004,he was an attorney at Bredhoff & Kaiser, where his practice consisted principally of federal litigation,including appeals, on behalf of labor unions, employees and pension funds. In 2008, with David Barron,he published a two-part article in the Harvard Law Review examining Congress's authority to regulate the Commander in Chief's conduct of war.

Prior to rejoining the Department of Justice, he was a regular contributor to several blogs and websites, including Balkinization, SCOTUS blog, Opinio Juris, and Slate, writing principally on issues relating to separation of powers, war powers, torture, detention, interrogation, international law, treaties,executive branch lawyering, statutory interpretation and the First Amendment. He served as law clerk to Chief Judge Jack B. Weinstein on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York,and to Judge Frank M. Coffin on the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit.

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John Prados, National Security Archive, George Washington University
John Prados heads the Archive's Vietnam and Intelligence Documentation Projects, co-directs its Iraq Documentation Project, and is a Senior Research Fellow on national security affairs, including foreign affairs, intelligence, and military subjects. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science (International Relations) from Columbia University and has authored many books, most recently In Country: Remembering the Vietnam War (Rowman & Littlefield, 2012).

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Loch Johnson, University of Georgia
Dr. Loch K. Johnson is Regents Professor of Political Science at the University of Georgia. He is editor of the journal "Intelligence and National Security" and has written numerous books on American foreign policy. Dr. Johnson was special assistant to the chair of the Senate Select Committee House Subcommittee on Intelligence Oversight from 1975 to 1976. He also served as staff director of the House Subcommittee on Intelligence Oversight from 1977 to 1979. In 1995 and 1996, Dr. Johnson worked with the chair of the Aspin-Brown Commission on Intelligence.

Dr. Johnson earned his Ph.D. in political science from the University of California at Riverside in 1969. He has won the Josiah Meigs Prize, the highest teaching honor at the University of Georgia in addition to the Owens Award, its highest honor for research. The Southeastern Conference named him its inaugural Professor of the Year in 2012. The award recognizes a faculty member from one the conference's member institutions whose achievement in scholarship, research and service puts them in the elite of higher education. He was a visiting scholar at Yale University over fall semester 2005. Currently, heis back at UGA continuing his research on intelligence. He is married to Leena Johnson, and has one daughter living in New York.

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Scott Shane, The New York Times
Scott Shane is a reporter in the Washington bureau of The New York Times, where he covers national security. He has written extensively about targeted killing under the Obama administration and the debate over torture during the Bush administration, and his 2007 articles on interrogation, written with several colleagues, were a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. More recently he has written about the anthrax investigation and Bruce Ivins, C.I.A. drone strikes in Pakistan, the American-born radical cleric Anwar al-Awlaki and the prosecution of alleged leakers of classified information. In addition, he has written about the evolving terrorist threat, the reorganization of intelligence agencies, the government¹s secret effort to reclassify historical documents and the explosion in federal contracting.

From 1983 to 2004, he was a reporter for The Baltimore Sun, covering a range of beats from courts to medicine and writing series of articles on brain surgery, schizophrenia, a drug corner, guns and crime and other topics. He was The Sun's Moscow correspondent from 1988 to 1991 and wrote a book on the Soviet collapse, Dismantling Utopia: How Information Ended the Soviet Union, which the Los Angeles Times described as "one of the essential works on the fall of the Soviet Union." In 1995, he co-wrote a six-part explanatory series of articles on the National Security Agency, the first major investigation of NSA since James Bamford's 1982 book The Puzzle Palace. His series on a public health project in Nepal won the nation's top science-writing award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2001.

He lives in Baltimore with his wife, Francie Weeks. They have three children.

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David Ignatius, The Washington Post
David Ignatius writes a twice-a-week foreign affairs column and contributes to the Post Partisan blog. Ignatius has also written eight spy novels: “Bloodmoney” (2011), “The Increment” (2009), “Body of Lies” (2007), “The Sun King” (1999), “A Firing Offense” (1997), “The Bank of Fear” (1994), “SIRO” (1991),and “Agents of Innocence” (1987). Body of Lies was made into a 2008 film starring Leonardo Di Caprio and Russell Crowe. Ignatius joined The Post in 1986 as editor of its Sunday Outlook section. In 1990 he became foreign editor, and in 1993, assistant managing editor for business news. He began writing his column in 1998 and continued even during a three-year stint as executive editor of the International Herald Tribune in Paris. Earlier in his career, Ignatius was a reporter for The Wall Street Journal, covering at various times the steel industry, the Justice Department, the CIA, the Senate, the Middle East and the State Department. Ignatius grew up in Washington, D.C., and studied political theory at Harvard College and economics at Kings College, Cambridge. He lives in Washington with his wife and has three daughters.

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Arturo Munoz, RAND
Arturo Munoz is a senior political scientist at the RAND Corporation. Prior to joining RAND, Munoz served 29 years at the Central Intelligence Agency, both in the Directorate of Operations and in the Directorate of Intelligence. He created successful counterterrorism, counterinsurgency, and counternarcotics programs, from initial planning to full implementation in the field. As an analyst,he wrote groundbreaking intelligence assessments on insurgent movements in Latin America, which pioneered the application of anthropology to intelligence. In various supervisory positions, both at headquarters and in the field, he managed campaigns with verifiable impact in Latin America, Southwest Asia, the Balkans, the Middle East, and North Africa. Munoz received his B.A. in history and Spanish literature from Loyola University; his A.B.D. in anthropology from the University of California, Los Angeles; and his M.A. in anthropology and Ph.D. in history from Stanford University.

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David Robarge, CIA
Dr. Robarge is the chief historian of the Central Intelligence Agency and has been a member of the agency's history staff since 1996. Before that he worked in the C.I.A. Counterterrorism Center and the Directorate of Intelligence as an analyst on the Palestinian and Iraq accounts. He has published aclassified biography of Director of Central Intelligence John McCone, and his articles and book reviews have appeared in the C.I.A.'s in-house journal "Studies in Intelligence," and in "Intelligence and National Security" and the "Journal of Intelligence History." Dr. Robarge holds a Ph.D. in American history from Columbia University, has taught United States intelligence history at George Mason University and has written a biography of Chief Justice John Marshall.

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Michael Warner, US Cyber Command
Dr. Michael Warner serves as the Command Historian for US Cyber Command. He has also written and lectured widely on intelligence history, theory, and reform. He teaches as an Adjunct Professor at American University’s School of International Service, and is on the board of editors of the journal Intelligence and National Security. Recent essays and volumes include: “Cybersecurity: A Pre-History,”Intelligence and National Security 27:5 (October 2012); “The Rise of the US Intelligence System,” in Loch Johnson, ed., The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence (Oxford, 2010); and "Building a Theory of Intelligence Systems," in Greg Treverton & Wilhelm Agrell, eds., National Intelligence Systems: Current Research and Future Prospects, (Cambridge, 2009). His book The Rise and Fall of Intelligence will be published by Georgetown University Press in 2013.

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Burton Gerber, Georgetown University
Mr. Gerber served in the Central Intelligence Agency for 39 years as a case officer and Chief of Station.He worked primarily in operations concerned with the former Soviet Union and the former Warsaw Pact countries. In three Communist countries he was the CIA’s Chief of Station. In Washington for eight years he directed the Agency’s operational programs in the Soviet Union and Europe.

After his retirement in 1995 Mr. Gerber has spoken and written on questions of espionage and ethics and the importance of espionage and intelligence in the war on terrorism. He has particularly focused on the need to respect civil liberties and human rights in fighting terrorism. Mr. Gerber has also spoken on business ethics and ethics in public service. He is a volunteer at several non-profit organizations.

With Professor Jennifer Sims of Georgetown University, he is the co-editor of and contributor to Transforming U.S. Intelligence, published by Georgetown University Press in September 2005.

Mr. Gerber is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Royal Society for Asian Affairs and the Washington Institute of Foreign Affairs. He is a member of the Board of Directors of SHARE, a food network, and of the Board of Visitors of James Madison College at Michigan State University. He is a Knight of Malta.

Mr. Gerber has received CIA’s Distinguished Intelligence Medal, Intelligence Commendation Medal and William J. Donovan Award. On three occasions he was designated a Meritorious Officer.

Mr. Gerber graduated with high honor from Michigan State University in 1955 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in International Relations. In 2006, he received the University’s Distinguished Alumnus Award.Mr. Gerber served in the United States Army.

With his late wife Rosalie, Mr. Gerber endowed scholarships at Michigan State University, Beta Theta Pi Fraternity and Assumption College in Worcester, MA.

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Karen Greenberg, Center on National Security, Fordham School of Law
Karen J. Greenberg, a noted expert on national security, terrorism, and civil liberties, is Director of the Center on National Security. She is the author of The Least Worst Place: Guantanamo’s First 100 Days(Oxford University Press, 2009), which was selected as one of the best books of 2009 by The Washington Post and Slate.com. She is co-editor with Joshua L. Dratel of The Enemy Combatant Papers: American Justice, the Courts, and the War on Terror (Cambridge University Press, 2008) and The Torture Papers:The Road to Abu Ghraib (Cambridge University Press, 2005); editor of the books The Torture Debate in America (Cambridge University Press, 2006) and Al Qaeda Now (Cambridge University Press, 2005); and editor of the Terrorist Trial Report Card, 2001–2011. Her work has been featured in The New York Times,The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, The San Francisco Chronicle, The Nation, The National Interest, Mother Jones, TomDispatch.com, and on major news channels. She is a permanent member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

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Roy Godson, National Strategy Information Center
Dr. Roy Godson was elected president of the National Strategy Information Center in 1993. He is also Emeritus Professor of Government at Georgetown University. For over 40 years, Dr. Godson has developed and managed educational and training programs on several continents, consulting extensively with governments, international organizations, and civil society.

His research and educational focus is on what today is referred to as irregular conflicts and developing both governmental/law enforcement and cultural/educational approaches to prevent and manage these challenges. For several years he has been examining successful efforts to prevent crime, corruption,and violent extremism that combine enhanced law enforcement with programs to further societal support for the rule of law. He has also been working with education officials, government, mass media,and religious institutions in the Americas, the Caucasus, and the Middle East on the development of education supportive of the rule of law.

He has authored, coauthored, or edited more than 30 books and monographs as well as numerous articles on a variety of security-related subjects. Most recently, this includes Adapting America’s Security Paradigm and Security Agenda (2011); Armed Groups and Irregular Warfare: Adapting Professional Military Education (2009); Democratic Security for the Americas: Intelligence Requirements (2008);Menace to Society: Political-Criminal Collaboration Around the World (2003); Strategic Denial and Deception: The Twenty-First Century Challenge (2001); Dirty Tricks or Trump Cards: U.S. Covert Action and Counterintelligence (2001); Organized Crime and Democratic Governability: Mexico and the U.S.-Mexican Borderlands (2000); and Security Studies for the 21st Century (1998).

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George Jameson, Jameson Consulting
W. George Jameson is the Principal in Jameson Consulting, a firm that advises corporate and Government clients on national and international security matters, operations, and governance. He is an attorney, author, and lecturer on national security-related issues; an instructor at the Intelligence and Security Academy, LLC; and he is an adjunct staff member at the RAND Corporation.

He also is the Chairman, Council on Intelligence Issues, a non-profit organization he co-founded in 2010 to educate the public on intelligence and other national security issues and to provide information about legal services available to CIA and other intelligence officers who may need assistance.

George retired from the Central Intelligence Agency after 33 years of Government service. Awards include: Distinguished Career Intelligence Medal and CIA Director's Award.

As the CIA’s first Director of the Office of Policy and Corporate Coordination, Office of the CIA Director(2006-2009), he established an integrated capability to resolve interagency policy matters and led CIA efforts on revision of Executive Order 12333 and implementation of Intelligence Community reform efforts.

He previously served as the Senior Counsel for Intelligence Community Affairs in the CIA’s Office of General Counsel (2005-2006), advising on intelligence reform and implementation.

In 2005, he set up and managed the Office of Legislative Affairs as the Interim Director in the newly established Office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), and as Senior Counsel established a legislation unit in the DNI’s Office of General Counsel.

He also held the CIA position of Deputy Director, Office of Congressional Affairs (2003-2005) where he oversaw and led CIA’s legislative efforts.

As Counsel to the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management (2000-2003), he served as general counsel for the DCI’s management of budgetary, personnel, technical, and human collection programs.

Throughout his career, George served in numerous senior attorney positions handling a broad range of legal, policy, and operational issues for CIA. Positions included: Counsel to the Deputy Director for Operations; Counsel to the Deputy Director for Intelligence; Counsel to the Chief, Counterintelligence Center; and Chief, Litigation Division, which he led for five years.

George also served on assignments as a Special Assistant U.S. Attorney in the District of Columbia, CivilDivision (1981) and Assistant Counsel to the President, handling financial disclosure matters (1986).

George received his A.B. from Harvard College (cum laude) and his J.D. from William & Mary.

He is a member of the Virginia and District of Columbia Bars; a member of the Advisory Committee,Standing Committee on Law and National Security of the American Bar Association; and a Member of the Steering Group for the National Security Law, Policy, and Practice Working Group of the Bar Association of the District of Columbia.

George also is a Member of the Board of Governors of the CIA Retirees’ Association.

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William Daugherty, Armstrong Atlantic State University
Dr. Daugherty joined the faculty of AASU in September 1996, after having served for more than seventeen years in the Central Intelligence Agency as an operations officer. His last assignment was in the area of covert action policy and included serving as CIA liaison officer to the National Security Council staff. Dr. Daugherty served eight years in the United States Marine Corps, including a tour in Vietnam. He holds a BA in Social Sciences from the University of California-Irvine and a Ph.D. in government from the Claremont Graduate School, with a specialization in Constitutional Law and American Foreign Policy.

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Paul Pillar Georgetown University
Professor Pillar retired in 2005 from a 28-year career in the U.S. intelligence community, in which his last position was National Intelligence Officer for the Near East and South Asia. Earlier he served in a variety of analytical and managerial positions, including as chief of analytic units at the CIA covering portions of the Near East, the Persian Gulf, and South Asia. Professor Pillar also served in the National Intelligence Council as one of the original members of its Analytic Group. He has been Executive Assistant to CIA's Deputy Director for Intelligence and Executive Assistant to Director of Central Intelligence William Webster. He has also headed the Assessments and Information Group of the DCI Counterterrorist Center, and from 1997 to 1999 was deputy chief of the center. He was a Federal Executive Fellow a the Brookings Institution in 1999-2000. Professor Pillar is a retired officer in the U.S. Army Reserve and served on active duty in 1971-1973, including a tour of duty in Vietnam.

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